McTrans Newsletter
September, 1995

McTrans Homepage

A truly global network, the Internet interconnects most of the world's large computer systems. The proliferation of personal computers with modem and networking capabilities has recently (and rapidly) popularized the Internet, which once was considered the realm only of universities, government agencies, and large corporations. McTrans is pleased to be able to take advantage of this technology and better serve the public by offering enhanced electronic access.

The primary mechanism for interactive information exchange on the Internet is the World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as 'the Web.' The Web is composed entirely of a series of links from one object to another. Some of the most common types of Web links include informational pages and forms (optionally containing hypertext linkages), images, FTP (File Transfer Protocol for downloadable files), Telnet (for login to remote systems, such as McLink), and multimedia (video and/or audio) clips. (File downloads and remote login may also be accomplished by standalone FTP and Telnet applications.)

Each page on the Web has a unique address, known as a Universal Resource Locator (URL). For instance, McTrans is now available on the Web at http://www-mctrans.ce.ufl.edu. A home page is the typical top-level entry point of a Web site. (The home page shared by the Transportation Research Center and McTrans is shown on the cover of this issue.)

McTrans has learned that certain WWW browsers may have difficulty accessing our FTP site. We are working with the developer of our server software to resolve this issue. In the interim, for best results with FTP we suggest the use of Netscape Navigator or a standalone FTP client program.

A software program known as a Web browser is used to access the Web in either graphical or text mode. Multimedia support may be built in or require additional software. Two very popular browsers are Mosaic and Netscape, both requiring a graphical operating system such as Microsoft Windows, OS/2, or Macintosh. Microsoft offers Internet Explorer, a graphical Web browser exclusively for the Windows 95 operating system.

Of course, WWW access also requires an Internet connection. Many large organizations are connected directly to the Internet on a full-time basis. Most individuals and smaller organizations, however, will use a modem to connect to the Internet via a service provider. A modem capable of at least 14,400 bps (bits per second) is suggested to provide reasonable performance.

Most of the popular online services, such as America Online, CompuServe, the Microsoft Network , and Prodigy now offer full Internet access at very reasonable prices. No-cost "trial offers" for these services frequently are packaged with new modems and computer systems. Additionally, many communities operate no-cost (or low-cost) public-access Freenet systems for local residents.

McTrans operates a 24-hour, PC-based electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS) system called McLink. McLink will allow the uploading and downloading of files and messages at up to 28,800 bps. Some of the available features are:

 Downloadable catalog information as the McFinder (our catalog on disk).
 Electronic messaging and forums facilitate the exchange of ideas, problems, etc.
 Uploading and downloading of selected McTrans public domain, shareware, and demonstration software.
 Listings of transportation-related conferences, training courses and other bulletin boards.
 On-line ordering of our software products.

Electronic Software Support

To improve our technical assistance to users, McTrans has several areas on McLink. These message areas offer an interactive forum for users, and new bulletins provide a link for McTrans to post current information on our most widely used software. The programs initially supported by this service include the Highway Capacity Software (HCS), TRAF-NETSIM, TRANSYT-7F, the Arterial Analysis Package (AAP), PASSER II-90 and HYDRAIN. File and forum (discussion) areas facilitate the uploading of data files for troubleshooting and even make maintenance updates to these programs available to registered users on McLink, for faster service.

McLink is accelerating!

We have recently upgraded McLink with three lines and to accommodate 28,800 bps. This means that data can be transferred at approximately ten times the previous rate, making communication faster and phone bills smaller. For example, a one-megabyte file, which transfers in about 80 minutes at 2400 bps, will take only about eight minutes at 28,800 bps. The color screens and ANSI graphics that can be quite slow at 2400 will now refresh much more quickly.

McLink is also available via the Internet (using Telnet and FTP) and the World Wide Web.

Electronic Access

There are numerous ways to access McTrans. In addition to the McLink dial-up BBS at (352) 392-3225, we have an electronic mail (e-mail) link to CompuServe and, of course, are accessible through the Internet.

CompuServe: 76560,273.
E-mail: mctrans@ce.ufl.edu.
FTP: ftp-mclink.ce.ufl.edu
Telnet: mclink.ce.ufl.edu
World Wide Web: http://www-mctrans.ce.ufl.edu

Windows 95

+ lots of RAM + big hard disk + fast computer = Winner!

The recently-introduced Microsoft Windows 95 operating system promises many benefits, including a simplified user interface, true multitasking, long filenames, improved hardware and multimedia support, built-in fax and e-mail, enhanced support for networking and workgroup computing and better memory management. As with most things that sound too good to be true, however, there is a catch. Windows 95 demands a modern, well-equipped PC stocked with plenty of RAM (random access memory), a very large hard disk and a VGA (or better) display.

According to Microsoft, the official minimum requirements for Windows 95 are a 386 processor, 4mb of RAM and 35-40mb of free hard disk space. In practice, however, users with 386-based PCs are likely to see sluggish performance. A 486 processor running at 33mhz is probably the practical minimum, with 66mhz (or faster) preferred. Windows 95 will load on a 4mb PC, but most application software (including Microsoft's own Plus!) will require at least 8mb, with 12-16mb being required for optimal performance and to take advantage of some advanced features. Users opting to install the recommended Microsoft Plus! companion product will need an additional 25mb of hard disk space, bringing the true minimum up to 60-65mb. Microsoft Exchange, Microsoft Network, and Internet support each require additional disk storage.

The good news is that given a suitably-equipped PC, Windows 95 does a very good job of living up to expectations. In tests and day-to-day use on several computers here at McTrans it has proven to be a very robust and crash-resistant operating system. Compatibility with existing applications, while not perfect, is excellent, and updates to problematic applications have already been announced by most vendors. We have found the user interface to be intuitive and much improved over that of Windows 3.1. Printing a document can now be as easy as dragging it to the printer icon. The new "desktop taskbar" and the ability to easily create application shortcut icons and store them on the desktop should make "power users" of nearly all.

One of the most powerful new features of Windows 95 is 32-bit preemptive multitasking, which is the ability to run more than one application at the same time, doing useful work in each and not seriously degrading system performance. This promising feature requires specially written 32-bit Windows applications, so the upgrade process does not stop with Windows 95 itself, and not all existing Windows 3.1 programs will likely be upgraded by their developers. (Windows NT also has this multitasking ability, and Microsoft has indicated that the Windows 95 user interface will be incorporated into a future version of Windows NT.)

Windows 95 provides an exciting preview of the future of desktop computing. It is a definite step forward, though not a quantum leap. Overall, Windows 95 has proven to be very compatible with a wide variety of packages. However, many organizations will want to move slowly, making certain that the required hardware, training resources and software updates are in place before undertaking an enterprise-wide upgrade. Users of older PCs that may not be fully up to the task of running Windows 95 should have an ample transition period during which existing MS-DOS and Windows 3.1 programs will continue to be supported by most vendors.

Running McTrans Software Under Windows 95

Many of the most popular McTrans-supported programs have now been successfully tested under Windows 95. Since there is no longer a need for a separate DOS, minor procedural adjustments may be required by users of MS-DOS-based software. In particular, we have noted two situations that users may encounter when running applications designed for MS-DOS from the Windows 95 desktop:

1. An installation program requires that Windows not be present to install. The solution is to select the icon of the installation program, then click on File, Properties, Program, Advanced, Prevent MS-DOS based programs from detecting Windows. This will hide from the installation program the fact that it is being run from a Windows environment.

2. "Out of environment space" message encountered. The solution is to select the icon for the application, then click on File, Properties, Memory, Initial Environment, 4096. This effectively increases the amount of memory available to the program.

What's McTrans Doing About Windows 95?

The Windows 95 evolution (we don't think it'll be a revolution) should occur slowly over the next year or so. International Data Corporation (IDC) recently said that they estimate home PC users moving to Windows 95 in droves -- 19.5 million by the end of 1995 and 70 million world-wide a year later. But they said that only 23% of 400 information managers they asked (who use Windows now) expected to upgrade any time in the near future. Their big jump should come in 1996.

So what is McTrans doing? We have made a policy decision that all further new software development will be aimed at the Windows 95 platform, but we will also produce Windows 3.1 versions (possibly Mac, OS/2 and Unix, too) of the MS-DOS-based software that we maintain. All versions will be Windows-like in their look-and-feel.

The programs most affected by this are the series of traffic model integrators and their component programs: the Arterial Analysis Package, the Highway Capacity Software, McT7F and WHICH. Indeed, the first will be McT7F, because it's the simplest. This will be our "learning" product.

If you have any thoughts, please send them to McTrans -- we want to serve you!

[Ed. The cited IDC data are copyright 1995, Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, L.P.]

The CORSIM Model

CORSIM (CORridor SIMulation) is the latest addition to the TRAF family of models, and it simulates traffic behavior on integrated urban transportation networks of freeways and surface streets. CORSIM synthesizes the NETSIM and FRESIM models to provide the most comprehensive simulation capabilities for the analysis of traffic operations, the evaluation of geometric design, the assessment of congestion and its mitigation strategies, and the evaluation of Transportation Systems Management as well as Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) strategies.

The NETSIM and FRESIM components of the CORSIM model simulate traffic behavior at a microscopic level that renders a highly detailed representation of individual vehicles and their interaction with the physical environment and other vehicles. NETSIM models the traffic behavior on the surface street segments of the network, while FRESIM models the traffic behavior on the freeway segments. The interface between the two components is transparent to the user; initially, the user need only partition the traffic network into surface street and freeway subnetworks and then identify the physical location of interface points between the adjoining subnetworks. The CORSIM model allows for the realistic interface of traffic effects between the freeway and surface street segments as well as the capacity to "look ahead" between those subnetworks.

Among the existing traffic simulation models, CORSIM offers the widest range of applications, which include the following:

Evaluation of ATMS strategies, such as bus/HOV ramp bypass, ramp metering and arterial signalization, traffic signalization, and preferential HOV lane treatments on surface streets and freeways.

Modeling of congestion traffic flow via the representation of queue formation and dissipation, spillback and cycle failures, and capacity-reducing effects (such as lane changing and freeway merging and weaving).

Evaluation of geometric design alternatives and analysis of traffic operations, such as lane additions and closures, freeway and surface street diversion plans, ramp closures, work zone modeling, freeway and surface street incident blockages and incident impacts, and freeway ramp metering and surface street signalization and control.

To facilitate the use of CORSIM, the preparation and coding of its input data, and the analysis of its output, the Federal Highway Administration has sponsored the design and development of a number of support and utility programs, which include the graphical user interface for input data preparation (ITRAF) and the graphical postprocessor for simulation animation and output display (traphix).

The first round of beta testing of the CORSIM model and its support programs was recently completed. In response to the participants' recommendations for enhancements and modifications to the model, revisions are currently under way. The Federal Highway Administration has targeted mid-1996 for the public release of the CORSIM model and its support programs. At a minimum, CORSIM requires a 80386/80387 processor with 8 MB of extended free memory. CORSIM will be available for both the MS-DOS and Windows environments.

NETSIM

NETSIM is the most widely used model for simulating traffic flow on urban networks. The primary features and capabilities of this well-known model have been discussed at length in previous issues of the McTrans newsletter. The NETSIM component of the CORSIM model is replacing NETSIM version 5, which is the recently released stand-alone version that includes the following enhancements:

Modeling of shared-lane operations
Improved actuated control logic with lead/lag phasing
Phase reservicing
Left-turn extension
Simultaneous phase gapout
Modeling of multimovement lanes
Intralink lane changing
Detailed intersection simulation
Urban interchange simulation that allows for the specification of origin-destination data, rather than turn percentages, for each link of an intersection
Static traffic assignment for modeling drivers' route choices according to user-optimal or system-optimal criteria.

FRESIM

FRESIM (FREeway SIMulation) is a stochastic, microscopic freeway model that simulates traffic behavior under most of the prevailing freeway geometric conditions, which include the following:

One to five through-lane freeway mainlines, with one- to three-lane ramps and one- to three-lane interfreeway connectors
Variations in grade, radius of curvature, and superelevation
Lane additions and lane drops at any location on the freeway
Auxiliary lanes, which are used by traffic for entering or exiting the mainline freeway
Work zone modeling through the use of the blockage incident capability
Modeling of HOV lanes and HOV ramp bypass lanes.

The model also provides the realistic simulation of operational features, which include the following:

Lane changing, merging, and weaving
Clock-time and traffic-responsive ramp metering
Freeway blockage incidents and rubbernecking
Comprehensive representation of the freeway surveillance system
Heavy vehicle movement, which may be biased or restricted to certain freeway lanes Incident detection and MOE estimation
Modeling of bus operations and direct treatment of HOV operations.

ITRAF

ITRAF is an interactive program with a graphical user interface that was developed to simplify and accelerate the tasks of creating and editing input data files for the TRAF family of models. ITRAF is a Windows application that includes pull-down and pop-up menus; advanced file maintenance, data entry, and error-checking capabilities; and a context-sensitive help system that guides the user through the process of creating and editing TRAF input data files. ITRAF provides full support for the CORSIM model.

traphix

traphix is a state-of-the-art graphics postprocessor for the CORSIM model that supports the static display of simulation input and output data as well as the animated display of simulated traffic in a postprocessing mode.

NEW PRODUCTS

HieLoW is a user-friendly software designed to help modeling discrete choice behaviors. The choice of goods and services a consumer makes depends on the characteristics of both the goods and services, and the individual. The relative importance of these characteristics are gathered in utility functions and estimated with discrete choice models.

This estimation can easily be achieved with HieLoW from a sample of observations regarding consumers revealed or stated preferences and considering the specification of either a multinomial or a hierarchical (nested) logic model. To improve the quality of estimated models, HieLoW provides the user with detailed statistical information.

Within the Department of Mathematics Optimization Unit of the Namur University (FUNDP), the Transportation Research Group has developed a robust and efficient maximization algorithm. Based on recently developed trust region methods, it explicitly exploits, when needed, the non-concavity of the loglikelihood function.

HieLoW is integrated in the WindowsTM environment. A permanent dialog, through dedicated boxes, leads the modeller from the model specification up to the results analysis.

HieLoW provides the user with direct access to other WindowsTM software (editors, word processors,...) enabling report writing simplification for instance.

A tutorial helps beginners getting familiar with HieLoW. A glossary and a permanent contextual help system are also included to facilitate the user's work.

Even though all the information about the quality of an estimated model is contained in the value of the coefficients, the final likelihood, and the variance-covariance matrix, HieLoW also provides the modeller with more convenient information: statistical tests, confidence intervals,... Moreover, correlation problems can be graphically detected.

HieLoW APPLICATION FIELDS

HieLoW can be used in the context of any choice behavior analysis including marketing, transportation, and land use planning.

A typical use of HieLoW in marketing research is the estimation of models describing the impact of several goods, services and brands characteristics on consumer behavior.

HieLoW helps transportation professionals to model travel behavior in the context of mode choice, route choice or parking choice and enables estimation of the relative influence of such factors as travel time, price, security, comfort and other travel choices.

Land use planners can use HieLoW to identify criteria influencing, for instance companies location choice within an area and housing choice.

A demonstration version of HieLoW is available. Version 1.0 of HieLoW is available in French and in English. HieLoW runs on IBM PC compatibles (with, at least, a 80386 processor) with the Microsoft WindowsTM environment. Licenses are available either for educational (teaching and academic research) or for commercial purposes.

The software package includes free technical support, maintenance and upgrades for a one-year period.

HieLoW (#HEILOW.FR) by the Transportation Research Group of the FUNDP - Namur University is available through STRATEC S.A. 32-(0)2-735.09.95 or from McTrans at LOS 7 for $4,000.

Rural Passenger Transportation (RPT) Spreadsheets implements the computational procedures described in the Workbook for Estimating the Demand for Rural Passenger Transportation developed under Transit Cooperative Research Program B-3. The user supplies information about service area size, demographic characteristics. social service programs and quantity of passenger transportation service available to market segments. The spreadsheet implements computations to estimate annual demand (one-way trips) for both Program Related and Non-Program Related services. Depending on user supplied data, the spreadsheet produces either and incremental forecast, if data on current services and their use are supplied, or a synthetic forecast, if no data on current services are supplied.

RPT Spreadsheets (#RPT) by SG Associates is available for $40 at LOS 3. The documentation (RPT.D) is available for $25.

Stormwater Infiltration Structure Design (SISD) software will assist engineers and architects to design stormwater facilities using aggregates. These designers are in highway departments, consulting engineer and architectural firms, engineering schools and the offices of developers of shopping centers, office parks and residential subdivisions. The program will calculate peak flows, hydrographs and run off volumes. These calculations will be used in the design of:

Infiltration Basins
Infiltration Trenches
Dry Wells
Porous Pavements
Vegetated Swales with Check Dams

SISD package includes 3-1/2" diskette and users manual. SISD version 1.0 (#SISD) by National Stone Association is available for $45 at LOS 7.

Smart Parking Analysis (SPARKS), Version 1.0 Release 2, is a unique and powerful tool for analysis and design of on-street parking facilities including its ability to model Parking Guidance System (PGS). It is the result of an intensive research aimed at modeling traffic operational behavior experienced in parking facilities.

SPARKS is an integrated package comprising of the following models uniquely developed:

 on-street parking model
 off-street parking model
 revenue analysis model for on-street based on cost optimization techniques
 stochastic models for on-street and off-street for determination of the maximum number of vehicles parked in the facility

The assimilation of the above models for parking analysis in a common umbrella makes this package one of its kind in the industry. Deficiencies of the Parking Generation Manual (PGM) method of design with its empirical approach, insufficient or lack of data for certain class of land uses, inability to model on-street parking and problems associated with joint use facilities are eliminated using SPARKS. The stochastic nature of vehicle arrival process, delay in searching for a parking space, probalistic weights on long and short term parking contributing to the waiting delay of an arriving vehicle and the probability that a vehicle leaves because of lack of an available space. The effect of these traffic operational elements are captured in SPARKS. Applications of SPARKS include all types of parking studies including parking master plans, sizing of parking facilities, revenue studies, and research. SPARKS is particularly suited for modeling PGS which minimizes searching delay for vacant parking spaces.

SPARKS has a menu driven data input structure with mouse support. An on-line help is available for all input data. SPARKS comes with a comprehensive Users Manual with detailed illustrations of its models. Structured output from SPARKS contains several measures of effectiveness (MOE) such as average time in the facility, average vehicles parked, maximum number of vehicles parked, level of service (LOS) in terms of probability of vehicles leaving, optimal number of parking spaces, and a new measure called the Parking Activity Index (PAI).

SPARKS (#SPARKS) by TransSolutions Inc. is available for $395 at LOS 6. A demonstration disk (#SPARKS.DEM) is available for $10.

Traffic Barrier Hardware Datasets (TBHD) containing the materials incorporated in the 1995 publication A Guide to Standardized Highway Barrier Hardware is available in CAD and wordprocessor formats. This guide supersedes the 1979 publication A Guide to Standardized Highway Barrier Rail Hardware, published jointly by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the American Road and Transportation Builder's Association (ARTBA), and the Association of General Contractors (AGC). This Guide contains drawings and specifications for roadside safety appurtenances. The designs included are those most widely used and therefore the most logical systems and components for standardization. Proprietary items are included in this Guide for the convenience of users, but this does not confer or imply any approval by AASHTO, ARTBA, AGC, or the FHWA. The proprietary materials were provided by the manufacturers for the convenience of highway designers.

The CAD and wordprocessor datasets are believed to be useful in updating design, installation, or maintenance practices to all members of the roadside safety community, including state engineers, consultants, manufacturers of hardware, installation contractors, and researchers. Since the 1979 version of the standard hardware guide was published, three issues have made revising the guide necessary. First, researchers, designers, and manufacturers were very active during the past decade designing new hardware and improving old designs. As a result, a large number of new components and systems that are now in common use were not represented in the guide. Second, many components and systems have become obsolete and are seldom used today, so they should be removed from the guide. Third, the Federal mandate to use the International System (SI) of units has necessitated a fresh look at standardizing components and converting dimensions and specifications to the SI unit system.

The drawings for the hardware and systems in this guide were produced using Intergraph Microstation version 5. The text specifications were produced using WordPerfect 5.1.

This revised guide includes not only components of barriers but drawings and specifications for common barrier systems. Some of the details shown in this guide have been revised from earlier details in the belief that doing so would result in more balanced and versatile designs. Every effort has been made to assure the correctness of the drawings and specifications at the time of publication, but a designer wishing to use details in this guide should assure themselves of the geometric and structural adequacy of the design. Citations to the roadside safety literature have been provided so designers may search out the test results and become familiar with the development of each barrier system.

This Guide is organized into five sections. The first section, including this subsection, contains the introductory material, tables of contents, cross references, and general information. The next three sections contain drawings and specifications of fastener, post, and rail components. The last section contains drawings of barrier systems. The barrier system drawings and specifications show how the components shown in the fastener, post, and rail sections of the guide can be assembled to produce a variety of barrier systems. Fasteners include bolts, nuts, and washers. Post components are those parts that serve as guardrail and bridge rail posts and parts connected to them. Soil plates and guardrail post blockouts are classified as post components as well as the actual post itself. Rail elements include the parts required to splice rail elements together and special elements like those used in terminals, as well as the actual rails themselves. Each component has been assigned a unique designator that identifies the component and also serves as a page number, with components being arranged alphabetically by designator. There are two indices in the guide that can be used to find a component or system. The first index cross-references the common name of the components and systems by their designator. The second index contains parts that were in the 1979 version. This list is cross-referenced by common name, the designator used in the 1979 guide, and the designator used in the present guide.

The guide has been produced totally in the International System (SI) of units. All length dimensions in this guide are in millimeters (mm), the units of stress are Mega-Pascals (MPa), the units of force are Newtons (N), and units of mass are kilograms (kg). Units of length are not shown on the drawings since all dimensions are in millimeters. Customary weights of pounds (lbs) have been converted to the SI mass unit of kilograms (kg). All the components and systems shown in this guide where originally developed in the foot-pound-second system and have been converted into their present form. Dimensions were converted and rounded as suggested in AASHTO R1-91 I (ASTM E 380-89a).

The materials in this Guide represent the accumulated experience of the roadside safety hardware community gained over the past thirty years. Some of the systems shown in this Guide were designed prior to any formal crash testing criteria and warranting guidelines. Others have been developed using the most recently published crash testing and evaluation criteria. Essentially all of the systems shown in this guide have been crash tested although many have not been crash tested according to the most recent testing recommendations.

Traffic Barrier Hardware Datasets (#TBHD) is available for $20 at LOS 5. The printed document is being sold by AASHTO.

WCHMAP is a mapping program that creates isolated arterial, or network input files for NETSIM, TRANSYT-7F, and EVIPAS from data that is entered into the WHICH program. WHICH intersections may be appended or joined to the north, south, east, or west to provide powerful analysis of large arterials or networks in a fraction of the original time. In addition to pretimed control, WCHMAP provides access to programs that explicitly analyze and optimize actuated control, with detector configurations and actuated signal settins mapped from WHICH's "Miscellaneous Data" screen. The WHICH program already maps data to programs such as the AAP, HCS, SOAP, and SIDRA, providing fast and powerful analysis of a common database.

WHICH Map version 1.0 (#WCHMAP), by David Hale is available for $100 at LOS 6.

Days Off Calculator , the transit industry's standard freeware rostering package, has been updated with its first-ever Windows version and a new DOS version.

Like their predecessors, Version 2.1 for DOS and Version 1.0 for Windows make it easy to work out off-day combinations when setting up operator runs, traditionally a difficult and inexact pencil-and-paper task.

New features include:

 An improved and more flexible technology for maximizing consecutive days off.
 An assignment list report that shows, for each day of the week, the grouping of runs into combinations.
 A name list feature that allows names of operators to be listed in reports with the runs and combinations they work.
 Immediate calculation: results are displayed as soon as inputs are entered.
 In the Windows version, copying of reports and help screens to the Windows clipboard, and a "keyboard" on-screen that allows data input using only the mouse.
 Undo capability.
 Easy testing of the effect of varying the number of runs on any given day, by pressing the greater than and less-than arrow keys to increase and decrease the number of runs input.
 A reduction in the amount of RAM needed to run the DOS version.

With either version, the user needs only to enter the number of operator runs on each of the 7 days of the week, and the calculator provides an optimized solution on screen and a variety of reports on request. The calculator can handle varying numbers of runs on different weekdays, and works with 4-day, 5-day, or 6-day workweeks. Though designed for operator rostering, it's useful in any crew-scheduling applications, transit or otherwise, including retail operations, maintenance, telephone coverage, field supervisors, assembly lines, and construction.

The calculator continues to be offered free of charge by developer David Grant of Transit Operations Planning and Scheduling, a consulting firm based in New Orleans. Asked why he's giving away the software, Grant said it's to let people know about the company, which specializes in all phases of the transit route and schedule development process. Grant has completed many successful projects in which schedule and route changes have increased ridership, sometimes despite a decrease in service provided. The firm also provides organization of ridership checking programs; analysis of ridership data; preparation of public timetables and route maps; writing and design of informational pieces on service changes; and compilation of Section 15 operating data.

For a free program disk containing both DOS and Windows versions, write to Transit Operations Planning and Scheduling, 5545 Bundy Road, Suite 370, New Orleans, Louisiana 70127-4821, USA; call (504) 244-9234; or fax your request to (504) 245-1627. The software runs on IBM-compatible personal computers, and comes on a 1.44 MB 3 1/2-inch disk unless you specify otherwise. Days Off Calculator (#DAYS) is also available at LOS 4 from McTrans.

UPDATES

INTEGRATION Version 2.0 represents a significant upgrade to the 10-year old combined traffic simulation and assignment model. Some of the new features include the use of integrated freeway and arterial car following, lane changing and gap acceptance logic, as well as the opportunity to model incidents, HOV restrictions and turning prohibitions at the individual lane level.

These new features permit detailed micro analysis of freeways, weaving areas, on- and off-ramp and ramp meters, as well as the explicit modeling of two-way and four-way stops, advanced green indications and right-turn-on-red. In addition to the updated user's manual, a brand new 200-page tutorial and reference manual are now available, which describes and discusses in excess of 30 sample networks that are provided to illustrate the impact of the new features.

Beyond fuel consumption and vehicle emissions statistics, the new model version can also generate lane-by-lane detector outputs, link- or trip-based probe reports, and statistics on the total number of stops, lane changes and takeover (passing) maneuvers in the network. Special features have also been added to model toll plazas, roundabouts and HOV facilities, as well various attributes of the National ITS Architecture. Finally, the model has been generalized to consider the capacity analyses associated with virtually the entire range of facilities described in Chapters 3-6 and 9-11 of the 1994 U.S. Highway Capacity Manual.

The small/academic version of INTEGRATION, that is available through McTrans, has been expanded to consider a network consisting of 250 links, nodes and O-D demand loadings, as well as 25,000 vehicles and 25 traffic signals or zones. at a cost of $375. It requires a 486DX type of computer with 8MB of RAM and VGA monitor. Larger versions, that can run in more RAM or on parallel computers can handle up to 10,000 links and 500,000 vehicles, and are directly available from M. Van Aerde & Associates, Ltd. at (613) 547-5481.

INTEGRATION, small version, (#INTEG) is available from McTrans at LOS 6 for $395

MacStorm Sewer is a complete program for the design and analysis of storm sewer systems. The program will compute flows through storm sewers by the rational method utilizing the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) rainfall intensity curves, the Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph or SCS Unit Hydrograph methods. Flows will be computed from inputted areas (three different c-values or CN-values per area) and time of concentrations. The hydraulic gradient is computed by analysis of pressure and open channel flow regimes based on the physical conditions of a given system. Output from the program can be displayed identically to the typical FDOT storm sewer tabulation form with all pertinent information calculated and shown as appropriate. Metric units are supported with file conversion between English and Metric units. Files created with FDOT PCDRAIN can be imported by the program for analysis.

MacStorm Sewer has additional features to aid in the preparation of construction drawings for the highway designer. The ability to create drainage structures based on the data entered in the storm sewer tabulation form and interface with all CADD application through the creation of DXF files. These structure DXF files are fully annotated and complete (minus the proposed cross section). In addition drawing of profiles and creation of GeoPak input files for plan view can be created from the same structures data base. The program comes with many FDOT structures however structures can be added by the user as required to customize on an as needed basis.

MacStorm Sewer (#MACSTORM.MAC) Version 3.1 by Kenneth Kneil is offered at LOS 7 for $550.

SIDRA 4.1 is a major new version incorporating a large number of significant enhancements to traffic models for all types of intersection, based on new ARRB research as well as on the new 1994 edition of the US Highway Capacity Manual. New traffic models provide complete and consistent modelling of capacity and traffic performance for different intersection types. New features of SIDRA 4.1 are listed below:

 Improved INTERSECTION TYPE menu (allows signalized and unsignalized intersection features to be specified easily).
 ROUNDABOUT CAPACITY model enhancement to allow for the effects of origin-destination pattern, proportion queued and lane usage on approach roads (improved modeling of capacities, especially for multi-lane roundabouts with heavy and unbalanced flows).
 ALL-WAY STOP SIGN CONTROL
 NEW FORMULAE for all types of intersection (details in SIDRA output):
 delay
 back of queue: average 90th, 95th and 98th percentile queues
 proportion queued (stopped)
 queue move-up rate
 effective stop rate
 GEOMETRIC DELAY and STOP models included for all types of intersection.
 New GAP-ACCEPTANCE CAPACITY formula (opposed left and right turns at signals, movements at sign-controlled intersections, roundabout entry streams).
 All capacity and performance models based on a BUNCHED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION of arrival headways calibrated using real-life and simulation data.
 gap-acceptance capacities (opposed left and right turns at signals, movements at sign-controlled intersections, roundabout entry streams) geometric delays
 operating cost, fuel consumption, and pollutant emissions.
 An improved PROGRESSION FACTORS method for modelling platooned arrivals generated by coordinated signals (HCM 94 method); also actuated control effects.
 Updated BASIC SATURATION FLOWS and saturation flow adjustment factors.
 Improved handling of PEAK FLOW METHOD.
 Improved SHORT LANE model application for roundabouts and sign-controlled intersections.
 New SIDRA CONFIGURATION utility (CONFIG).
 New method to run SIDRA treating the current directory as the data directory automatically.
 Improved graphical output display module (GOSID) using ATSIS (Australian Transport Software Integration System) common data file format. GOSID is now an independent program that can be linked to other software using ATSIS file format.
 New mono screen facility in GOSID for better picture printing.
 Extensive input, output and menu system improvements.
 New comprehensive USER GUIDE in one volume.

SIDRA version 4.1 (#SIDRA) available from McTrans at LOS 6.

SYNCHRO by Traffic Synchro Software has been upgraded to version 2.0. New features in this version include a full implementation of Chapter 9 of the 1994 Highway Capacity Manual. Synchro has a Time Space Diagram that shows individual vehicles moving and stopping. All windows and reports were adjusted to provide more information and be easier to use. Map windows now show street names and can show a background map in Autocad format. A new calculation method was added to aid engineers in deciding which intersections to coordinate and which to operate independently.

Synchro Professional automatically creates input files for TRAF-NETSIM, (as well as PASSER-II and TRANSYT-7F,) for simulating traffic flows.

Traffic Synchro Software also has USGS Street Maps for the entire continental US in Autocad format, for use with Synchro and Autocad. These maps make great looking presentations and can be used for vicinity maps in engineering plans.

For a free demonstration disk, contact Traffic Synchro Software at (800) 379-6247, Fax (510) 526-5199. SYNCHRO version 2.0 (#SYNCRO) is available from McTrans at LOS 7.